Word Roots & Prefixes: Quick Reference

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Link Root word Meanings Origin Examples and Definitions
list a/n not, without Greek abyss - without bottom; achromatic - without color; anhydrous - without water
list a on Latin afire - on fire; ashore - on the shore; aside - on the side
list a, ab/s
from, away, off Latin abduct - carry away by force; abnormal - away from normal, not normal; absent - away, not present; aversion - the act of turning away from; abbreviate: to shorten.
list a/c/d to, toward, near Latin

accelerate - to increase the speed of; accessible - easily entered, approached, or obtained; admittance - allowing into;

list acro top, height, tip, beginning Greek

acrobat - a "high walker"; acronym - a word formed from the first (capital) letters of a word; acrophobia - fear of height

list act do Latin activity - something that a person does; react - to do something in response; interaction - communication between two or more things
list aer/o air Greek aerate - to let air reach something; aerial - relating to the air; aerospace - the air space
list agr/i/o farming Latin
Greek
agriculture - management of the land, agribusiness - making money by utilizing land; agrarian - relating to the management of land
list alg/o pain Latin neuralgia - pain caused by a nerve; analgesic - a drug that makes one pain free; nostalgia - aching for the familiar
list ambi, amphi both, on both sides, around Latin ambidextrous - able to use both hands equally; ambiguous - having more than one meaning; ambivalence - conflicting or opposite feelings toward a person or thing
list ambul walk, move Latin amble - to walk in a slow, relaxed way; ambulant - walking or moving around; ambulance - a vehicle that moves a patient
list ami/o love Latin amiable - friendly, pleasant, lovable; amity - friendly and peaceful relations; amorous - showing romantic love
list ana up, back, against,
again, throughout
Greek analysis - a close examination of something; anatomy - the structure of something as visible when cut up for analysis; anachronism - not being in the right place in time
list andr/o man, male Greek androgynous - being both male and female; android - resembling a human; misandry - hatred towards men
list anim life, spirit Latin animal - a living organism; animate - to make alive; equanimity - of balanced spirit
list ann/enn year Latin anniversary - a date observed once a year; annual - happening once a year; millennium - 1,000 years
list ante before, in front Latin antecede - to come before something in time; antemeridian - before noon; anteroom- a small room before the main room
list anth/o flower Greek chrysanthemum and amaranth - names of flowers; anthology - a collection of treasured writings; anthozoan - half plant, half animal, like anemones and corals.
list anthrop/o human Greek anthropology - the study of mankind; anthropomorphism - giving human form to non-human things; philanthropy - the love to mankind (expressed through good deeds)
list anti against, opposite of Greek antibody - a substance that destroys micro-organisms; antiseptic - preventing infection; antisocial - opposing social norm
list apo, apho away, off, separate Greek aphorism - a short expression of a general truth; apology - an explicit expression of regret, apostrophe - a small dash used in place of an omitted letter
list aqu/a water Latin aquarium - a water container for fish; aquatic- relating to water; aqueduct - a pipeline for water
list arbor tree Latin arborist - someone working with trees; arbor - a shady area formed by trees; arborous - having many trees
list arch/i
chief, most important, rule Greek archbishop - the highest ranking bishop; archenemy - chief or worst enemy; matriarch - a female who rules a group; monarch - a king or queen
list arch/a/i primitive, ancient Greek archaeology - the study of ancient cultures; archaic - belonging to an earlier period; archive - a collection of historical materials
list arthr/o joint Latin
Greek
arthroscope - a tool to see inside a joint; arthritis - inflammation of a joint; arthropod - invertebrates with jointed legs, like spiders, crustaceans, insects
list art skill Latin artifact - object made by a person's skill; artisan - a person skilled in a craft; artist - a person who creates skillfully
list astro,
aster
star, stars, outer space Latin astronaut - a person traveling to the stars; astronomer - someone who studies the stars; asterisk - a star-shaped sign used as a reference tool
list aud/i/io hear Latin audible - loud enough to be heard; audience - people who listen to a program; audiovisual - relating to sound and vision
list auto self, same, one Greek autocrat - a person who governs with absolute power; autograph - a person's own signature; automatic - moving by itself
list avi/a bird Latin aviary - a large enclosure for birds; aviatrix - a female airplane pilot; aviation - the art of designing or operating aircraft
list bar/o pressure, weight Greek baric - pertaining to pressure, esp. of the atmosphere; milliard - metric unit, equal to 1/1000th of a bar; baryon - heavy elementary particle
list bell/i war Latin bellicose - warlike; belligerent - hostile, ready to fight; rebel - person who opposes and fights
list bene good, well Latin benefactor - person who gives money to a cause; beneficial - producing a good effect; benevolent - showing kindness or goodwill
list bi/n two, twice, once in every two Latin biannual - happening twice a year; binoculars - optical device with two lenses; bilateral - of or involving two sides
list bibli/o book Greek bibliography - a list of books used as sources; bibliomania - an extreme love of books; bibliophile - a person who loves books
list bio life, living matter Greek biography- a life story written by another person; biology - the science of life; biosphere - Earth's surface inhabited by living things
list blast/o cell, primitive, immature cell Greek blastula - an early stage of embryonic development; fibroblast - a cell that forms connective tissue; blastoderm - the layer surrounding the inside of an egg
list burs pouch, purse Latin bursar- an administrative officer in charge of funds; bursary- the treasury of a college or monastery; disburse- to expend especially from a public fund
list calc stone Latin calcite; calcium- the flame of acetylene gas generated by reaction of calcium carbide with water; calcification- impregnation with calcareous matter
list cand glowing, iridescent Latin candid- free from bias, prejudice, or malice; candle- something that gives light; incandescent- white, glowing, or luminous with intense heat
list capt, cept, ceive take, hold Latin intercept - to stop or interrupt;

perceive - to take notice of something; captivating - taking hold of

list cardi/o heart Greek cardiac - relating to the heart; cardiogenic - resulting from heart disease; cardiologist - a heart doctor
list carn/i flesh, meat Latin carnivorous - flesh-eating; carnal - pertaining to the body or flesh; incarnate - given bodily form
list cata down, against
completely, intensive,
according to
Greek cataclysm - a flood or other disaster, catalog - a complete listing; catastrophe - turning for the worst, a substantial disaster
list caust,
caut
to burn Latin
Greek

cauterize - to burn with a hot instrument; caustic - capable of burning or eating away; holocaust - total devastation, especially by fire

list cede,
ceed,
cess
go, yield Latin

exceed - to go beyond the limits; recede - to go back; accessible - easily entered, approached, or obtained;

list celer fast Latin accelerate - to increase the speed of; decelerate - to reduce the speed of
list cent/i hundred, hundredth Latin centennial- the 100th anniversary; centimeter - 1/100 of a meter; century - 100 years
list centr/o/i center Greek egocentric - self-centered; eccentric - not having a common center, not according to norm; centrifugal - moving outward from a center
list cephal/o head Greek encephalitis - inflammation of the brain; cephalic - pertaining to the head; cephalopod - marine mollusks like octopus and squid who have tentacles growing from their head
list cerebr/o brain Latin cerebral - pertaining to the brain; cerebrate - to use the brain; cerebrospinal - pertaining to the brain and the spinal cord
list cert sure Latin ascertain- to find out something with certainty; certain - being absolutely sure; certify - to state that something is true
list chrom/o chromat/o, chros color, pigment Greek achromatic - without color; chromium - a blue-white metallic chemical element, chromatics - the study of color
list chron/o time Greek chronic - lasting for a long time; chronological - arranging events in time order, synchronize - happening at the same time
list chrys/o gold, yellow Greek chrysanthemum and helichrysum - golden/yellow flowers; chrysolite - a yellowish gem
list cide, cise cut, kill Latin homicide - murder; incisor - a sharp tooth for cutting food; insecticide - a chemical used to kill insects
list circum,
circle
around, about Latin circumnavigate - to sail around; circumscribe - to draw around; circumspect - looking around
list claim, clam shout, speak out Latin clamor - to shout and make noise; exclaim - to cry out loudly and suddenly; proclamation - something announced officially in public
list clar clear Latin clarification - an explanation; clarify - to make something clear; declare - to state something clearly
list clud, clus close Latin conclusion - the end or last part; exclusion - shutting out, rejecting; seclude - to keep away from; to isolate
list cline lean Latin inclination - a leaning toward; incline - a surface that slopes or leans; recline - to lean back and relax
list co with, together, joint Latin coauthor - writer who collaborates with another author; coeducation - educating males and females together; cohousing - planning your neighborhood in an intentional neighborly fashion
list col together, jointly Latin Collaborate - to work together; collision - smashing together; colloquial - words formed by everday interaction
list com together, common Latin commemorate - to memorize together; composition - an arrangement or putting together of parts; commune - living together while owning things in common
list cogn/i know Latin cognition - process of acquiring knowledge; incognito - disguised so no one knows you; recognize - to discover that one knows
list con with, jointly Latin concur - to agree with someone; contemporary - of the same time period as others; convention - a gathering of people with a common interest
list contra/o against, opposite Latin contradict to argue against, Contraflow, contraception, contrary not in agreement, controversy disagreement
list corp/o body Latin corporation - a company recognized by law as a single body; corpse - a dead body; corporal - pertaining to the body
list cosm/o universe Greek cosmonaut - a Russian astronaut; cosmos - the universe; microcosm - a miniature universe
list counter opposite, contrary, opposing counteract - to oppose the effects of an action; countermand - to cancel a previous order; counteroffensive - attack against an attack
list cranio skull Greek craniology - the study of skull characteristics; cranium - skull of vertebrates; cranial - pertaining to the skull
list cred believe Latin credence - belief that something is true or valid; credulous - believing things too easily, gullible; incredible - unbelievable
list cruc cross Latin crucial-characteristic of or having the form of a cross ; crucifix- the cross itself as a Christian emblem; excruciating-  so intense as to cause great pain or anguish
list crypto hidden, secret Greek cryptic - of hidden meaning; cryptography - science of secret codes; encrypt - encode into secret code
list cumul mass, heap Latin accumulate - to gather or pile up; cumulative - gradually building up
list curr, curs run Latin concurrent- running parallel; current- flowing easily and smoothly; cursive- having a flowing, easy, impromptu character
list cycl circle, ring Greek bicycle - a vehicle with two wheels; cycle - a sequence that is repeated; cyclone - a storm with circling winds
list de reduce, away, down, remove Latin decelerate - to slow down, reduce speed; dethrone - to remove from power; debug - to remove bugs
list dec/a,
deka
ten Greek decade - 10 years; decathlon - athletic contest that includes 10 disciplines in which each participant competes; December - formerly the 10th month of the Roman calendar
list deci one tenth Latin deciliter - a tenth of a liter; decimate - reduce dramatically; decibel - one tenth of the sound volume unit bel
list dem/o people Greek democracy - government of the people; demographic - the study of people; epidemic - spreading among people in a region
list demi half, less than Latin demitasse - a small cup of coffee; demimonde - someone of little respected life style
list dendr/o/i tree Greek philodendron - a climbing plant that grows on trees; dendrochronology - dating events by studying growth rings in trees; dendriform - in the shape of a tree
list dent, dont tooth Latin dental - relating to teeth; dentist - a doctor for the teeth; dentures - a set of false teeth
list derm/a skin Greek dermatologist - a doctor for the skin; pachyderm - a class of animals with very thick skin (elephant, rhinoceros); dermatitis - inflammation of the skin
list di/plo two, twice Greek dichromatic - displaying two colors; diploma - a certificate, literally "a letter folded double"; dilemma - a situation that requires a choice between two alternatives.
list di/s apart, away,
not, to the opposite
Latin digression - a departure from the main issue, subject; disappear - to move out of sight; dissect - to cut apart piece by piece.
list dia through, between,
apart, across
Greek diabetes - disease characterized by excessive thirst and discharge of urine; diagnosis - understanding a condition by going through a detailed review of symptoms; dialog - conversation between two people.
list dict speak Latin contradict - to express the opposite of; prediction - a statement foretelling the future; dictate - to speak out loud for another person to write down.
list domin master Latin dominate - to be the master of; domineering - excessively controlling; predominate - to have more power than others
list don/at give Latin donation - a contribution or gift; donor - someone who gives something; pardon - to give forgiveness for an offense
list duc/t lead Latin conduct - to lead musicians in playing music; educate - to lead to knowledge; deduction - a subtraction of an amount.
list du/o two, twice Latin duplicate - make an identical copy; duet - a musical composition for two voices or instruments; duo - a pair normally thought of as being together.
list dur harden, to last, lasting Latin durable - having the quality of lasting; duration - the length of time something lasts; enduring - able to last.
list dyn/a/am power, energy, strength Greek dynamo - a generator of energy; dynamic - having physical energy/power; dynamite - a powerful explosive.
list dys abnormal, bad Greek dyspepsia - abnormal indigestion; dystopia - an imaginary place of total misery; dyslexia - impairment of the ability to handle words.
list e- out, away Latin eloquent - speaking beautifully and forcefully; emissary - a representative of a country or group sent on a mission; eject - throw out forcefully.
list ego self Latin
Greek
egoistic - self-centered; alter ego - a higher aspect of oneself; egomania - excessive preoccupation with oneself.
list em, en into, cover with, cause empathy - intention to feel like another person; empower - put into power; engorge - make larger.
list endo within, inside Greek endotherm - a creature that can keep its inside temperature fairly constant; endocrine - relating to glands that secrete directly into the blood or lymph; endogamy - the custom to marry within one's clan, tribe etc.
list enn/i, anni years Latin bicentennial - of or relating to an age or period of 200 years; centennial - of or relating to an age or period of 100 years; perennial -lasting through many years.
list en, in inside, inwards Latin envision - to picture in the mind; enclose - lock inside; inwards - towards the inside.
list ep/i on, upon, over,
among, at, after,
to, outside
Greek epidemic - the rapid spread of something negative; epilogue - a short speech delivered after a play; epicenter - the center of an earthquake.
list equ/i equal, equally Latin equidistant - an equal distance from two points; equanimity - calm temperament, evenness of temper; equation - a statement of equality.
list erg/o work Greek ergonomics - study of the working environment; energy - the power to accomplish work; energetics - science that looks at energy and its transformation.
list esth/aesth feeling, sensation, beauty Latin esthetician - someone who beautifies; aesthetic - pertaining to a sense of beauty; kinesthesia - the sensation of bodily movement.
list ethno race, people Greek ethnic - pertaining to a defined group of people; ethnocentric - focusing on the ethnicity of people; ethnology - the science of people and races.
list eu good, well Greek euphemism - replacing an offensive word with an inoffensive one; euphonious - having a pleasant sound; euphoria - feeling of well-being.
list ex from, out, Latin excavate - to dig out; exhale - to breathe out; extract - to pull out.
list extra, extro outside, beyond Latin extraordinary - beyond ordinary; extraterrestrial - outside the Earth; extrovert - an outgoing person.
list fac/t make, do Latin artifact - an object made by a person; factory - a place where things are made; malefact - a person who does wrong.
list fer bear, bring, carry Latin confer - to bring an honor to someone; ferry - a boat that carries passengers; transfer - to move to another place.
list fid faith Latin confide - place trust in someone, fidelity - faithfulness; fiduciary - a trustee;
list flect bend Latin deflect - to bend course because of hitting something; inflection - a bending in the voice's tone or pitch; flexible - easily bending.
list flor/a,
fleur
flower Latin florist - someone working with flowers; floral - flowerlike; flora - the plant life of a particular time or area
list for completely (used to intensify
the meaning of a word)
forsaken or forfeited - completely lost; forgiven - completely given (a release of debt).
list fore in front of, previous, earlier forebear - ancestor; forebode - to give an advance warning of something bad; forecast - a preview of events to be.
list form shape Latin conformity- correspondence in form, manner, or character; formation- something that is formed; reformatory- intended for reformation
list fract, frag break Latin fracture - a break; fragile - easy to break; fragment or fraction - a part or element of a larger whole;
list fug flee, run away, escape Latin fugitive - a person who is running away; refuge - a sheltered place to flee to; refugee - a person seeking protection
list funct perform, work Latin defunct - no longer working or alive; function - to work or perform a role normally; malfunction - to fail to work correctly.
list fus pour Latin confusion - being flooded with too much information that is hard to make sense of; fuse - to melt by heating; infuse - to put into.
list gastr/o stomach Greek gastric - pertaining to the stomach; gastronomy - serving the stomach by providing good food; gastritis - inflammation of the stomach.
list gen/o/e/
genesis
birth, production,
formation, kind
Greek genealogy - the study of the history of a family; generation - all the people born at approximately the same time; genetic -relating to heredity encoded in the genes.
list geo earth, soil, global Greek geography - study of the earth's surface; geology - study of the structure of the earth; geoponics - soil based agriculture.
list ger old age Greek geriatrics - medicine pertaining to the elderly; gerontocracy - the rule of the elders; gerontology - the science of aging.
list giga a billion Greek gigabyte - unit of computer storage space; gigahertz - unit of frequency (one billion Hz/sec); gigawatt unit of electric power (one billion watts).
list gon angle Latin
Greek
decagon - a polygon with 10 angles; diagonal - a slanting line running across a space; octagon - a geometrical figure with 8 angles.
list gram letter, written Greek diagram - a simple drawing; grammar - rules of how to write words in sentences; telegram - a message sent by telegraph.
list gran grain Latin granary- a storehouse or repository for grain especially after it is threshed or husked; granola- a mixture of rolled oats and other ingredients; granule- a little grain (as of sugar)
list graph/y writing, recording, written Greek Graphology - the study of handwritings; autograph - written with one's own hand; seismograph - a machine noting strength and duration of earthquakes.
list grat pleasing Latin gratify - to please someone; grateful - feeling thankful; gratuity - a tip, token of appreciation.
list gyn/o/e woman, female Greek gynecology - the science of female reproductive health; gynephobia - fear of women; gynecoid - resembling a woman.
list gress, grad/e/i to step, to go Latin digression - a departure from the main issue, subject, etc.; progress - movement forward or onward; gradual - step by step.
list hect/o, hecat hundred Greek hectoliter - 100 liters; hectare - metric unit equaling 100 ares or 10,000 square meters; hectometer - 100 meters.
list helic/o spiral, circular Greek helicopter - an aircraft with horizontal rotating wing; helix - a spiral form; helicon - a circular tuba.
list heli/o sun Greek heliotropism - movement or growth in relating to the sun; heliograph - apparatus used to send message with the help of sunlight; helianthus - genus of plants including sunflowers.
list hemi half, partial Greek hemicycle - a semicircular structure; hemisphere - one half of the earth; hemistich - half a line of poetry.
list hem/o/a blood Latin
Greek
hemorrhage - clotting of the blood; hemorrhoids - swelling of the blood vessels; hemoglobin - red blood particle.
list hepa liver Latin hepatitis - inflammation of the liver; hepatoma - a tumor of the liver; hepatotoxic - toxic and damaging to the liver.
list hept/a seven Greek heptagon - a shape with seven angles and seven sides; Heptateuch - the first seven books of the Old Testament; heptameter - a line of verse consisting of seven metrical feet.
list herbi grass, plant Latin herbicide - any chemical used to kill unwanted plants, etc.; herbivorous - plant-eating; herbal - relating to plants.
list hetero different, other Greek heterogeneous - made up of unrelated parts; heteronyms - words with same spelling but different meanings; heterodox - not conforming to traditional beliefs.
list hex/a six Greek hexagon - a shape with six angles/sides; hexameter - a verse measured in six; hexapod - having six legs.
list histo tissue Greek histology - study of the microscopic structure of tissues; histochemistry - study of the chemical constitution of cells and tissues.
list homo,
homeo
like, alike, same Latin
Greek
homogeneous - of the same nature or kind; homonym - sounding alike; homeopath - a therapy that is based on treating "same with same"
list hydr/o liquid, water Greek hydrate - to add water to; hydrophobia - intense fear of water; hydroponics - growing plants in liquid nutrient solution; hydraulic - operated by force created by a liquid.
list hygr/o moisture, humidity Greek hygrometer - tool used to measure humidity; hygrograph - instrument for recording variations in atmospheric humidity.
list hyper too much, over,
excessive, beyond
Latin
Greek
hyperactive - very restless; hypercritical - too critical; hypertension - above normal pressure.
list hyp/o under Greek hypoglycemia - an abnormally low level of sugar in the blood; hypothermia - abnormally low body temperature; hypothesis - a theory that is unproven but used under the assumption that it is true.
list iatr/o medical care Greek geriatrics - medical care of the elderly; pediatrician - a doctor who treats children; podiatry - medical care for feet.
list icon/o image Latin
Greek
icon - an (often religious) image, in modern usage a simplified graphic of high symbolic content; iconology - science of symbols and icons; iconoclast - someone who destroys religious images and traditional beliefs.
list idio peculiar, personal, distinct Greek idiomatic - Peculiar to a particular language; idiosyncracy - a physical or mental characteristic typical or a particular person; idiot - someone who is distinctly foolish or stupid.
list il, in in, into Latin illuminate - to give light to; innovation - a new idea, method, or device; inspection - the act of examining or reviewing.
list ig, il, im,
in, ir
not, without Latin illegal - not legal; impossible - not possible; inappropriate - not appropriate; irresponsible - not responsible.
list imag likeness Latin image - a likeness of someone; imaginative - able to think up new ideas or images; imagine - to form a picture or likeness in the mind.
list infra beneath, below Latin infrastructure - underlying framework of a system; infrared - below the regular light spectrum.
list inter between, among, jointly Latin international - involving two or more countries; intersection - place where roads come together; intercept - to stop or interrupt the course of.
list intra,
intro
within, inside Latin intrastate - existing in one state; intravenous - inside or into a vein; introvert - shy person who keeps within him/herself.
list ir not Latin irredeemable - not redeemable; irreformable - not reformable; irrational - not rational.
list iso equal isobar - a line on a map connecting points of equal barometric pressure; isometric - having equality of measure; isothermal - having equal or constant temperature.
list ject throw Latin eject - to throw someone/something out; interject - to throw a remark into a discussion; project - to cast or throw something.
list jud law Latin judgment - a decision of a court of law; judicial - having to do with judges or courts of law; judiciary - a system of courts of law.
list junct join Latin conjunction - a word that joins parts of sentences; disjunction - a disconnection; junction - a place where two things join.
list juven young Latin juvenile - youthful or childish; rejuvenate - to bring back to youthful strength or appearance.
list kilo thousand Greek kilobyte - 1,000 bytes; kilometer - 1,000 meter; kilograms - 1,000 grams.
list kine/t
/mat
motion, division Greek kinetics - study of the force of motion; psychokinesis or telekinesis - the ability to move objects with your mind; cinematography - motion picture making.
list lab work Latin collaborate - to work with a person; elaborate - to work out the details; laborious - requiring a lot of hard work.
list lact/o milk Latin lactate - to give milk, nurse; lactose - the sugar contained in milk; lactic acid.
list later side Latin bilateral - of or involving two sides; unilateral - affecting one side of something.
list leuk/o,
leuc/o
white, colorless Greek leukemia - abnormal increase of white blood cells in the blood; leukocyte - a mature white blood cell; leucine - a white, crystalline amino acid.
list lex word, law, reading Greek lexicology - the study and history of words; alexia -loss of the ability to read; illegal - not authorized by the official rules or laws.
list liber free Latin liberate - to set free; libertine - a person with a free, wild lifestyle; liberty - freedom.
list lingu language, tongue Latin linguist - one who studies languages; multilingual - able to communicate in multiple languages; linguine - long, flat "tongue-shaped" pasta.
list lip/o fat Greek liposuction - the mechanical removal of fat reserves in the tissue; lipase - enzyme that breaks down fat; lipoid - resembling fat.
list lite, ite,
lith/o
mineral, rock, fossil Greek apatite - a group of common minerals; granite - a hard, granular rock; monolith - a remarkable, unique stone.
list loc place Latin dislocate - to put something out of its usual place; location - a place; relocate - to move to a new place.
list log/o word, doctrine, discourse Greek logic - correct reasoning; monologue - a long speech by one speaker;analogy - similarity, especially between things otherwise dissimilar.
list loqu, locu speak Latin eloquent - speaking beautifully and forcefully ; loquacious - very talkative; elocution - art of public speaking.
list luc light Latin elucidate - to explain, to throw light on; lucid - easily understood, giving off light; translucent - allowing light through.
list lud, lus to play Latin prelude - introduction to the major performance; illusion - misleading optical image or impression; delude - to mislead, deceive.
list lumin light Latin illuminate - to fill with light; lumen - unit measuring light.
list lun/a/i moon Latin lunar - relating to the moon; lunarscape - the surface of the moon; lunatic - insane (as if driven mad by the moon).
list macro large, great Greek macroevolution - large scale evolution; macromolecule - a large molecule; macroeconomics - study of the overall forces of economy.
list magn/a/i great, large Latin magnify - make larger; magnificent - grand; magnate - a powerful person, especially in business or industry.
list mal/e bad, ill, wrong Latin malcontent - wrong content; malaria - "bad air", infectious disease thought to originate from the "bad air" of the swamps, but caused by the bite of an infected mosquito; malicious - showing strong ill will.
list man/i/u hand Latin maneuver - to move by hand; manual - done with the hands; manuscript - a book written by hand.
list mand to order Latin command - an order or instruction; demand - a hard-to-ignore order; mandate - an official order.
list mania madness, insanity,
excessive desire
Greek bibliomania - a crazy love of books; egomania - a mad love of oneself; maniac an insane person.
list mar/i sea Latin

marina - a harbor for pleasure boats; maritime - relating to the sea; submarine - an undersea boat; aquamarine - color of sea water.

list mater,
matr/i
mother Latin maternal - relating to motherhood; maternity - the state of being a mother; matriarch - a woman head of a household.
list max greatest Latin maximal - the best or greatest possible; maximize - to make as great as possible; maximum - the greatest amount.
list medi middle Latin medieval - pertaining to the Middle Ages; medium - in the middle; mediocre - only of medium (inferior) quality.
list mega great, large, million Greek megalopolis - an area with many nearby cities; megaphone - a device that projects a loud voice; megastructure - huge building or other structure.
list melan/o black Greek melancholy - a state of dark emotions; melanoma - malignant dark tumor of the skin; melodrama - a dark, pathetic drama.
list memor/i remember Latin commemorate - to honor the memory of, as by a ceremony; memorial - related to remembering a person or event; memory: an ability to retain knowledge or an individual's stock of retained knowledge.
list merge,
mers
dip, dive Latin immerge or immerse - to put or dip something into a liquid; submerge to dip something completely into wate.r
list meso middle Latin
Greek
Mesoamerica - Middle America; meson - elementary particle with a mass between an electron and a proton.
list meta change, after, beyond, between Greek metaphysics - study of nature and reality; metamorphosis - a complete change of form; metastasis - the transmission of disease to other parts of the body.
list meter,
metr/y
measure Greek audiometer- an instrument that measures hearing acuteness; chronometer- an instrument that measures time; metric - measured.
list micro very small, short, minute Greek microbe - a very small living thing; microchip - a tiny wafer with an integrated circuit; microscope - a device to see very small things.
list mid middle Latin
Greek
midriff - the area between the chest and the waist; midterm - middle of a term in school; midway - halfway between.
list migr move Latin immigrant - a person who moves to a new country to settle; migrant - person who moves from place to place; migration - the process of moving.
list milli onethousandth Latin millimeter - one thousandth of a meter; millibar - one thousandth of a bar; milliliter - one thousandth of a liter.
list min/i small, less Latin mini - something that is very small; minuscule - extremely tiny; minutiae - very small or trivial details.
list mis/o bad, badly, wrong, wrongly,
to hate
Greek misbehave - to behave badly; misprint - an error in printing; misnomer - an error in naming a person or thing.
list miss, mit send, let go Latin dismiss - to send someone away; missile - a weapon sent into the air; emit - to send something out; admittance - entry.
list mob move Latin immobilize - to stop from moving; mobile - able to move freely; mobility - the quality of being able to move.
list mon/o one, single, alone Greek monochromat - having one color; monologue - a speech spoken by one person; monotheism - belief in one god.
list mot, mov move Latin motion - the act of moving; motivate - to move someone to action; promote to move someone forward; removable - able to be taken or carried away.
list morph/o form Greek metamorphosis - complete change of form; endorphins - chemical in the brain able to transform pain; amorphous - without distinct shape or form.
list mort death Latin immortal - living forever, unable to die; mortal - certain to die; mortician - an undertaker.
list multi many, more than one or two Latin multicolored - having many colors; multimedia - using a range of media; multitasking - doing many things at once.
list mut change Latin immutable - not changing; mutant - an organism that has undergone change; mutate - to undergo a change.
list my/o muscle Latin myocardium - the middle muscle of the heart; myasthenia - muscle fatigue or weakness; myosin - common protein in muscle tissue.
list narr tell Latin narrate - to tell a story; narrative - a story; narrator - a person who tells a story.
list nat born Latin innate - included since birth; natal - relating to birth; natural - gotten at birth, not afterward.
list nav ship Latin circumnavigate - to sail around a place; naval - relating to a navy or warships; navigate - to sail a ship through a place.
list necr/o dead, death Greek necrophil - loving death; necrosis - the death of tissue due to disease or injury; necrology - a list of persons who have recently died.
list neg no Latin negate - to say it didn't happen; negative - meaning "no"; renege - to go back on a promise.
list neo new, recent neoclassic - a revival of classic form, neocolonialism - the indirect ("new") economical and political control of a region by a more powerful foreign power; neonatal - a newborn child, especially the first few weeks.
list nephr/o kidney Greek nephritis - inflammation of the kidneys; nephrotomy - surgical incision of a kidney; nephron - a single, excretory unit in the kidney.
list neur/o nerve Greek neuralgia - pain along a nerve; neurologist - doctor specializing in the nerves; neurotic - mental disorder that usually does not include an impaired perception of reality.
list nom/in name Latin misnomer - an error in naming a person or thing; nominal - being something in name only but not in reality; nominate - to name for election or appointment, to designate.
list non no, not, without Latin nondescript - with no special characteristics; nonfiction - true, real, not made-up; nonsense - without sense.
list not mark Latin notable - marked as worthy of attention; notarize - to certify a signature on a legal document; annotate - to add remarks.
list noun,
nunc
declare Latin announce - to declare in public; denounce - to proclaim harsh criticism; enunciate - to speak or declare something clearly.
list nov new Latin innovate - to introduce a new way; novelty - something new; novice - a person who is new at a job; renovate - to make something like new again.
list numer number Latin enumerate - to name a number of items on a list; numerology - the study of magical uses of numbers; numerous - a large number.
list ob, op in the way, against Latin object - to be against something; obscure - hard to understand; opposition - the act of resistance or action against.
list oct/a/o eight Greek octagon - a figure with 8 sides and 8 angles; octogenarian - person in his or her 80s; octopus - sea animal with 8 arms.
list ocu eye Latin binoculars - lens device for seeing distances; monocula - relating to one eye; oculist - an eye doctor.
list od path, way Greek diode-  an electron tube having two electrodes, a cathode and an anode; odometer-  an instrument attached to a vehicle to measure the distance traversed; triode- an electron tube with an anode, a cathode, and a control grid
list omni all Latin omnipotent - with all the power; omniscient - knowing all things; omnivorous eating all foods.
list op/t/s eye, visual condition, sight Greek optic - relating to the eyes; optician - a person who fits eyeglasses; autopsy - the examination of a dead body.
list opt best Latin optimal - the best, the most desirable; optimize - to make the best of; optimum - the best something could be.
list ortho straight Greek orthodontist - a dentist that straightens teeth; orthopedic - a doctor concerned with the proper alignment of the bones; orthography - the correct way of writing.
list osteo bone Greek osteoarthritis - inflammation caused by degeneration of the joints; osteopathy - therapy that uses among others manipulation of the skeleton to restore health; osteology - the study of bones.
list out goes beyond,
surpasses, exceeds
Outgoing - being of lively, sharing nature; outdoing - doing better than; outdoor - outside.
list over excessive Latin overconfident - more confident than is appropriate; overstock - more supplies than is desirable; overexcited - ,more excited than one should be.
list oxy sharp Greek oxymoron - combining two ideas that sharply contradict each other; oxydize - corrode a surface.
list pale/o ancient Greek paleontology - study of ancient fossils; paleography - the study of ancient forms of writing; Paleolithic - period of the Stone Age.
list pan all, any, everyone Greek panacea - a cure for all diseases or problems; panorama - an all-around view; pantheism - the worship of all gods; pandemic - affecting all.
list para beside, beyond, abnormal,
assistant
Greek parasite - an organism that lives on and off another living being; parallel - alongside and always an equal distance apart; paragraph - a portion of a writtenn document that presents a distinct idea.
list para protection from parachute - protection from falling; parasol - an umbrella used to protect from the sun;
list pater,
patr/i
father Latin
Greek
paternal - relating to fathers; paternity - fatherhood; patriarch - a man who rules a group.
list path feeling, emotion antipathy - a feeling of great dislike; apathy - a lack of feeling or interest; empathy - ability to understand another's feelings.
list ped/i/e foot, feet Latin pedal - a lever pushed by the foot; pedestrian - one who walks; pedicure - cosmetic treatment of feet and toes.
list pel drive, force Latin compel - to force someone to act; expel - to drive someone out of a place; repel - to force back.
list pent/a five Greek pentagon - shape having 5 angles and 5 sides, pentagram - a five-pointed star formerly used as a symbolic figure in magic; pentathlon - an athletic contest that includes five events.
list pept,
peps
digestion Greek dyspepsia - abnormal digestion; peptic - aiding digestion; pepsin - a digestive enzyme.
list per through, throughout Latin permanent - lasting throughout all time; permeate - to spread throughout; persist - to continue for a long time; perennial - lasting through many years.
list peri around, enclosing Greek periodontal - pertaining to bone and tissue around a tooth; peripheral - lying outside of the center; perimeter - the outer boundary of an area.
list phag/e to eat Greek esophagus - muscular tube that carries food to the stomach; anthropophagy or sarcophagy - cannibalism; xylophagous - feeding on wood.
list phil/o love, friend Greek philanthropist - one who loves humanity; philology - the love of words; philosophy - the love of wisdom; bibliophil - loving books.
list phon/o
/e/y
sound Greek cacophony - loud, unpleasant sounds; microphone - a device that records and amplifies sound; phonetic - relating to human speech sounds.
list phot/o light Greek photogenic - caused by light; photograph - image made on light-sensitive film; photon - the smallest possible unit of light.
list phyll/o leaf Greek chlorophyll - a group of green pigments found in leaves; phyllotaxis - the arrangement of leaves on a stem; phyllite - a rock that forms sheets, similar to slate.
list phys nature, medicine, the body Greek physical - relating to the body; physician - a doctor; physique - nature and shape of one's body.
list phyt/o/e plant, to grow Greek epiphyte - a plant growing independently on the surface of another; hydrophyte - a plant that grows only in water; neophyte - a beginner, especially a person recently converted to a new belief.
list plas/t/m to form, development,
forming cells
Greek protoplasm - something that is the first made or formed, also the living portion of a cell; plastic - able to be formed, especially when warm; plaster - a mixture of lime, sand and water that forms a smooth solid covering for walls.
list plaud, plod, plaus, plos approve, clap Latin applaud- to show approval of especially by clapping the hands; explosion- an act of exposing something as invalid or baseless; plausible- worthy of being applauded
list pneum/o breathing, lung, air, spirit Greek pneumonia - inflammation of the lungs; pneumatic - using the force of air; dyspnea - difficulty breathing.
list pod/e foot Greek podiatrist - a doctor for the feet; podium - a small platform to stand on; tripod - a stand or frame with 3 legs.
list poli city Greek metropolis - a large city; police - people who work for the government to maintain order in a city; politics - actions of a government or political party.
list poly many, more than one Greek polychrome - with many colors; polyglot - a person fluent in many languages; polygon - shape with 3 or more straight sides.
list pon place, put Latin opponent - a person who places him/herself against an action, idea, etc.; postpone - to put off doing something.
list pop people Latin popular - appealing to a lot of people; population - all of the people who live in a particular area; populist - a supporter of the rights of people.
list port carry Latin export - to carry goods out of a place to another; portable - able to be carried; porter - a person who carries luggage.
list pos place, put Latin deposit - to place or drop something; expose to place out into the open for all to see; position - the place where someone is.
list post after, behind Latin posthumous - after someone's death; postpone - to delay something; postscript - an addition to an already completed document.
list pre earlier, before, in front of Latin preamble - a part in front of a formal document; prepare - to get ready in advance; prediction - a statement foretelling the future.
list pro before, in front of,
for, forward
Greek
Latin
prognosis - a prediction of what will happen; prologue - a passage before the main part; prophet - a person who foretells the future.
list prot/o primitive, first, chief Greek prototype - the first of a kind; proton - on of the very basic parts of an atom; protocol - a first draft from which a document is prepared.
list pseud/o wrong,false Greek pseudonym - a fictitious name; pseudoscience - theories presumed without proof of a scientific nature; pseudopregnancy - a false pregnancy.
list psych/o mind, mental Greek psyche - the human spirit or soul; psychic - relating to the human mind or someone who has supernatural mental abilities; psychology - the study of the mind.
list pugn/a,
pung
to fight Latin pugnacious - having a quarrelsome or aggressive nature; repugnant - distasteful, offensive or revolting; pungent - piercing.
list pul urge compulsion - a very strong urge; expulsion - to someone out; impulsive - having a spontaneous urge to do something.
list purg clean Latin purge - remove anything undesirable; purgatory - according to Roman Catholics a place where souls must clean themselves of sin; expurgate - remove objectionable passages from a publication.
list put think Latin computer - an electronic thinking device; dispute - to disagree with what another person thinks; input - contribution of one's thinking.
list pyr/o fire, heat Greek pyrotechnics - the art of making fireworks; pyrometer - a thermometer for measuring high temperature; pyretic - relating to or producing fever.
list quad/r/ri four Latin quadrant - open space with buildings on 4 sides; quadrennium - period of 4 years; quadruped - a 4-footed animal.
list quart fourth Latin quarter - one fourth; quart - a fourth of a gallon; quartet - a musical composition or group involving 4 voices or instruments.
list quin/t five, fifth Latin quintett - a composition for 5 voices or instruments; quintessence - pure essence, based on the ancient philosophy that there was a fifth element that was present in all things; quintuple - fivefold.
list radic,
radix
root Latin eradicate - pull out at the roots; radical - fundamental, looking at things from a drastic point of view; radish - an edible root of the mustard family.
list radio radiation, ray radioactive - emitting radiation; radiologist - someone diagnosing or treating via radiation.
list ram/i branch Latin ramification - the resulting consequence of a decision; ramify - to spread or branch out; ramus - a branchlike part.
list re again, back, backward Latin rebound -to spring back again; rewind - to wind something backward; reaction: a response; recognize: to identify someone or something seen before.
list reg guide, rule Latin regent - a person who rules on behalf of a king or queen; regime - a government that rules; regulate - to apply a rule.
list retro backward, back Latin retroactive - relating to something in the past; retrogress - to go back to an earlier condition; retrospect - the remembering of past events.
list rhin/o nose Greek rhinoceros - a species of animals with a big horn on the snout; rhinoplasty - surgery of the nose; rhinovirus - viruses that are causing the common cold.
list rhod/o red Greek rhododendron - a flower with red/pink flowers; rhodium - an element which produces a red solution; rhodopsin - a purple pigment in the retina that is needed for vision.
list rid laugh Latin deride - to make fun of someone; ridicule - to make fun or mock; ridiculous - silly, causing laughter.
list rrh/ea
/oea/ag
flow, discharge Latin
Greek
diarrhea - abnormally excessive bowl movement; hemorrhage - heavy blood flow; catarrh - inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially the nose and throat.
list rub red Latin ruby - deep red color and a precious stone of the same color; rubella - measles; bilirubin - reddish pigment in bile.
list rupt break, burst Latin bankrupt - unable to pay because you're "broke"; interrupt - to break into a conversation or event, to disturb; rupture - a break in something.
list san health Latin sane - mentally healthy; sanitary - relating to cleanliness and health; sanitation - maintenance of public health and cleanliness.
list scend climb, go Latin ascend - to climb upward; crescendo - a climbing up of the volume of music; descend - to go or climb down.
list sci know Latin conscience - sense of knowing right from wrong; conscious - knowing what is happening; omniscient - knowing everything.
list scler/o hard Greek arteriosclerosis - hardening of the arterial walls; multiple sclerosis - disease which causes the tissue of the brain and spinal cord to harden; sclerometer - instrument for measuring hardness.
list scop/e/y see, examine, observe Greek microscope - a device used to see tiny things; periscope - a seeing instrument on a submarine; telescope - a device used to see over a distance.
list scrib,
script
write, written Latin inscribe - to write letters or words on a surface; scribe - a person who writes out documents; describe - to represent with words or pictures.
list se apart Latin secede - to formally break away from; seclude - to keep away from; serum - a liquid isolated out of another.
list sect cut Latin dissect - to cut apart piece by piece; intersection - the place or point where two things cross each other; bisect - to cut into two equal parts.
list sed, sid, sess sit Latin reside- be stationed; sediment- the matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid; session- an actual or constructive sitting of a body
list self of, for, or by itself self-discipline - the ability to discipline yourself; self-respect - respect for yourself; selfish concerned only with your own interests.
list semi half, partial Latin semiannual - every half year; semicircle - half a circle; semiconscious - partly conscious; semiannual - every half of a year.
list sept/i seven Latin September - this used to be the seventh month in the Roman calendar; septet - a group of seven musicians; septuagenarian - a person in his/her seventies.
list serv save, keep Latin conserve - to save or keep something safe; preserve - to save something; reservation - a place kept for a person.
list sex six Latin sextet or sextette - a composition or group of six, sextuple - sixfold; sexagenarian - person in his/her sixties.
list sol alone Latin desolate - lonely, dismal, gloomy; solitary - done alone, by yourself; solo - a performance done by one person alone.
list sol sun Latin solar - involving the sun; parasol - umbrella protecting from the sun; solarium - a room where one is exposed to sun light.
list somn/I sleep Latin insomnia - inability to fall asleep; somniloquy - talking in your sleep; somnolent - feeling sleepy.
list son sound Latin consonant - a speech sound; sonorous - producing loud, full, rich sounds; supersonic - faster than sound; unison - as one voice.
list soph wise Greek philosopher - a wise person; sophisticated - wise about the ways of the world; sophism - a clever but misleading argument.
list spec/t,
spic
see, look Latin circumspect - cautious, looking all around; retrospective - a looking back at past things; spectator - a person who sees an event.
list sphere ball Greek biosphere - the whole round surface of the earth; hemisphere - half the earth spherically shaped like a ball.
list spir breathe Latin inspire - to stimulate or animate; transpire - to give of vapor with waste product through the skin or a membrane; spirit - invisible life force.
list sta stand Latin stable - standing steady and firm; stagnant - standing still, not moving; stationary - at a standstill, fixed.
list stell star Latin constellation - a group of stars that forms a pattern; interstellar - between the stars; stellar - relating to stars.
list struct build Latin construct - to build; destruction - the act of destroying something that was built; structure - something built; infrastructure - underlying framework of a system.
list sub under, lower than,
inferior to
Latin submarine - an underwater boat; submerge - to put underwater; substandard - inferior to accepted standards.
list sum highest Latin sum - the combined total of everything; summation - the total, highest amount; summit the highest point or top.
list super higher in quality
or quantity
Latin Super bowl - the final annual football game; superior - above average, better in quality; supersonic - faster than the speed of sound.
list sy/m
/n/l/s
together, with, same Greek symmetry -similarity in size, form or arrangement; synergy - the combined effect; synchronize - to cause to occur at the same time.
list tact, tang touch Latin  contact - a state in which two things touch; tactile - relating to the sense of touch; tangible - able to be touched; intact - with nothing missing.
list tax/o arrangement Greek  syntax - the systematic arrangement of words; taxonomy - the science of classification; ataxia - loss of the ability to coordinate muscle action.
list techno technique, skill Greek  technology - the practical application of knowledge; technocracy - rule of technology; technologically - characterized by technology.
list tel/e/o far, distant, complete Greek  telephone - a device to talk to a distant person; telescope - a device to view distant objects; television - a device to receive pictures from afar; telecommuting - working remotely, bridging the distance via virtual devices.
list temp/or time Latin  contemporary- existing at the same time; temporal - relating to time; temporary - lasting for a limited time.
list ten, tin, tent hold Latin continent- serving to restrain or limit; detention-  the act or fact of detaining, tenacious- having parts or elements strongly adhering to each other
list ter, trit rub Latin attrition-  the act of rubbing together or wearing down; detritus- a product of disintegration or wearing away; trite- used or occurring so often as to have lost interest, freshness, or force
list term/ina end, limit Latin  determine - to find something out at the end of an investigation; terminate - to end; exterminate - to destroy or get rid of completely.
list terr/a/i land, earth Latin  extraterrestrial - existing outside the earth; terrain - ground or land; territory - an area of land.
list tetra four Latin tetrapod - having 4 legs; tetrarchy - government by 4 rulers; tetrose - a monosaccharide with four carbon atoms.
list the put Greek bibliotheca-  a list or catalog of books; theme- a proposition for discussion or argument; thesis- a dissertation embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view
list the/o god Greek  monotheism - belief in one god; polytheism - worshiping more than one god; theology - the study of religion, god, etc.
list therm/o heat Greek  thermal - relating to heat; thermos - an insulated jar that keeps heat in; thermostat - a device that controls heat.
list tort twist Latin contortion - a twisted shape or position; distort - to alter the shape or condition of; retort - reply in a manner that is supposed to change the effect of something previously said.
list tox poison Latin detoxification - the process of removing poisons; toxic - poisonous; toxicology - the study of poisons; intoxicated - influenced by drugs.
list tract pull, drag Latin  attract - to pull objects nearer; distract - to drag attention away from something; tractor - a motor vehicle that pulls things.
list trans across,beyond, through Latin  transcontinental - across the continent; transfer - to move from one place to another; transport - to carry something across a space.
list tri three, once in every three,
third
Greek
Latin  
triangle - a figure with 3 sides and 3 angles; triathlon - an athletic contest with 3 events; tricycle - a 3-wheeI vehicle with pedals.
list ultra beyond, extreme, more than Latin  ultrahigh - extremely high; ultramodern - more modern than anything else; ultrasonic - sound waves beyond human hearing.
list un not,opposite of, lacking  Latin unabridged - not shortened; unfair - opposite of fair; unfriendly - lacking friendliness.
list uni one, single Latin  unicycle - a vehicle with one wheel; unilateral - decided by only one person or nation; unique - the only one of its kind; unison - as one voice.
list urb city Latin  suburb - residential area on the edge of a city; urban - relating to a city; urbanology - the study of city life.
list vac empty Latin  evacuate - to empty a dangerous place; vacant - empty, not occupied; vacation - a time without work.
list ven/t come Latin  circumvent - to go around or bypass restrictions; convention - a gathering or assembly of people with a common interest; intervene - to come between.
list ver/I truth Latin  veracious - truthful, honest; veracity - the truth; verify - to make sure that something is true.
list verb word Latin  verbalize - to put into words; adverb - a word relating to a verb; proverb - a short saying that expresses a well-known truth.
list vers,
vert
turn Latin  reverse - to turn around; introvert - being turned towards the inside; version - a variation of an original; controversy - a conversation in which positions are turned against each other.
list vice acting in place of,
next in rank
Latin vice-president - the person next in rank to the president
list vid see Latin  evident clearly seen
list vince,
vic
conquer Latin convince - to win someone over; invincible - not able to be conquered; victory - the conquest of an enemy.
list vis, vid see Latin  vision - the ability to see; envision - to picture in the mind; evident - clearly visible.
list viv/i
vit
live, life Latin  revival - the act of bringing back to life; vital - pertaining to live; vivacious - high-spirited and full of life.
list voc/i voice, call Latin  advocate - to speak in favor of; equivocate - to use misleading language that could be interpreted two different ways; vocalize - to produce with your voice.
list vol/i/u wish, will Latin  benevolent - showing good will and kindness; volition - the act of making a choice or decision, voluntary - resulting from your own free will.
list vor,
vour
eat Latin  carnivorous - meat-eating; voracious - desiring or eating food in great quantities; devour - to eat quickly.
list xanth yellow Latin xanthium- a genus of coarse and rough or spiny herbs; xanthochromia- yellowish discoloration (as of the skin or cerebrospinal fluid); xanthogenic
list xen/o foreign Greek  xenophobic - afraid of foreigners; xenogenesis - the creation of offspring that is completely different from either parent; xenophile - attracted to foreigners.
list xer/o/I dry Greek  xerophyte - a plant that grows in dry climate; xerography - a dry photocopying process; xeric - requiring small amounts of moisture.
list xyl wood Greek xylocarp; xyloid- resembling wood; xylophone-an organ percussion stop of similar tone quality
list zo/o animal life Greek  zoology - study of animals; zooid - resembling an animal; zooplankton - minute floating aquatic animals.
list zyg/o pair Greek  zygote - a cell formed by the union of two gametes and the organism developing from that; zygomorphic - pertaining to organisms that can be divided into symmetrical halves along one axis only.